Passive solar energy
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With this technique, the built environment is given shape in such a manner that the design is based on the need for sun or shade. Examples include buildings in which large glass surfaces facing south can capture energy but which also create shade, minimising the need for air conditioning. In public spaces, too, taking the sun into consideration is becoming more and more important in connection with heat stress caused by the higher temperatures in summer. The Place de la Republique in Paris, discussed elsewhere in this publication, is an example of a public space designed with this in mind.