Shade provided by vegetation
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Strategically positioned trees and vegetation on the outsides of buildings can block out sunlight and thus limit the extent to which buildings heat up and need to be cooled. Another positive effect is that plants that shed their leaves keep the sun out in summer while nevertheless letting the winter sun in. Non-deciduous plants on buildings can reduce transmission loss in winter by forming an additional insulating layer of air and limiting the amount of heat radiating off the building.