Improve outer building shell / reduce transmission loss
At the level of individual buildings, optimising windows, sun blinds, daylight penetration and wall, roof and floor insulation are all factors that help to reduce the amount of energy used for heating and cooling. Facade and roof vegetation can reduce energy demand, as the part of the building behind or below the vegetation remains cooler in summer. In winter loss through transmittance is limited here due to the extra layer of insulation.
For insulation using green facades, see Green facades.
Insulation using green roofs: see Green roofs.