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Significant developments are being made in increasing the efficiency of the pumps for heating systems. Decentralised pump systems are also available that allow different settings for each space and have been shown to lead to annual savings of 20% [Erhorn-Kluttig et al., 2011].
Using energy-efficient appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines, optimising daylight penetration and reducing standby use of computers and similar machines can help limit the amounts of electricity used.